NiTi alloys have been widely used in the applications for micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS), which often involve some precise and complex motion control. However, when using the NiTi alloys in MEMS application, the main problem to be considered is the degradation of functional property during cycling loading. This also stresses the importance of accurate prediction of the functional behavior of NiTi alloys. In the last two decades, a large number of constitutive models have been proposed to achieve the task. A portion of them focused on the deformation behavior of NiTi alloys under cyclic loading, which is a practical and non-negligible situation. Despite of the scale of modeling studies of the field in NiTi alloys, two experimental observations under uniaxial tension loading have not received proper attentions. First, a deviation from linearity well before the stress-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) has not been modeled. Recent experiments confirmed that it is caused by the formation of stress-induced R phase. Second, the influence of the well-known localized Lüders-like SIMT on the macroscopic behavior of NiTi alloys, in particular the residual strain during cyclic loading, has not been addressed. In response, we develop a 1-D phenomenological constitutive model for NiTi alloys with two novel features: the formation of stress-induced R phase and the explicit modeling of the localized Lüders-like SIMT. The derived constitutive relations are simple and at the same time sufficient to describe the behavior of NiTi alloys. The accumulation of residual strain caused by R phase under different loading schemes is accurately described by the proposed model. Also, the residual strain caused by irreversible SIMT at different maximum loading strain under cyclic tension loading in individual samples can be explained by and fitted into a single equation in the proposed model. These results show that the proposed model successfully captures the behavior of R phase and the essence of localized SIMT.
- Constitutive Model
- Stress-induced Martensitic Transformation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Mechanical Engineering