3D printed microneedles for insulin skin delivery

Cristiane Patricia Pissinato Pere, Sophia N. Economidou, Gurprit Lall, Clémentine Ziraud, Joshua S. Boateng, Bruce D. Alexander, Dimitrios A. Lamprou, Dennis Douroumis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

115 Citations (Scopus)
928 Downloads (Pure)


In this study, polymeric microneedle patches were fabricated by stereolithography, a 3D printing technique, for the transdermal delivery of insulin. A biocompatible resin was photopolymerized to build pyramid and cone microneedle designs followed by inkjet print coating of insulin formulations. Trehalose, mannitol and xylitol were used as drug carriers with the aim to preserve insulin integrity and stability but also to facilitate rapid release rates. Circular dichroism and Raman analysis demonstrated that all carriers maintained the native form of insulin, with xylitol presenting the best performance. Franz cell release studies were used for in vitro determination of insulin release rates in porcine skin. Insulin was released rapidly within 30 min irrespectively of the microneedle design. 3D printing was proved an effective technology for the fabrication of biocompatible and scalable microneedle patches.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Early online date16 Mar 2018
Publication statusEarly online date - 16 Mar 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D printing
  • Inkjet coating
  • Insulin
  • Microneedles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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