A century of trends in adult human height

James Bentham, Mariachiara Di Cesare, Gretchen A. Stevens, Bin Zhou, Honor Bixby, Melanie Cowan, Léa Fortunato, James E. Bennett, Goodarz Danaei, Kaveh Hajifathalian, Yuan Lu, Leanne M. Riley, Avula Laxmaiah, Vasilis Kontis, Christopher J. Paciorek, Majid Ezzati, Ziad A. Abdeen, Zargar Abdul Hamid, Niveen M. Abu-Rmeileh, Benjamin Acosta-CazaresRobert Adams, Wichai Aekplakorn, Carlos A. Aguilar-Salinas, Charles Agyemang, Alireza Ahmadvand, Wolfgang Ahrens, Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa, Amani Rashed Al-Othman, Rajaa Al Raddadi, Mohamed M. Ali, Ala’a Alkerwi, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Eman Aly, Philippe Amouyel, Antoinette Amuzu, Lars Bo Andersen, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Hajer Aounallah-Skhiri, Inger Ariansen, Tahir Aris, Nimmathota Arlappa, Dominique Arveiler, Felix K. Assah, Mária Avdicová, Fereidoun Azizi, Bontha V. Babu, Suhad Bahijri, Nagalla Balakrishna, Piotr Bandosz, José R. Banegas, Carlo M. Barbagallo, Alberto Barceló, Amina Barkat, Mauro V. Barros, Iqbal Bata, Anwar M. Batieha, Rosangela L. Batista, Louise A. Baur, Robert Beaglehole, Habiba Ben Romdhane, Mikhail Benet, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Gailute Bernotiene, Heloisa Bettiol, Aroor Bhagyalaxmi, Sumit Bharadwaj, Santosh K. Bhargava, Zaid Bhatti, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Hongsheng Bi, Yufang Bi, Peter Bjerregaard, Espen Bjertness, Marius B. Bjertness, Cecilia Björkelund, Anneke Blokstra, Simona Bo, Martin Bobak, Lynne M. Boddy, Bernhard O. Boehm, Heiner Boeing, Carlos P. Boissonnet, Vanina Bongard, Pascal Bovet, Lutgart Braeckman, Marjolijn C.E. Bragt, Imperia Brajkovich, Francesco Branca, Juergen Breckenkamp, Hermann Brenner, Lizzy M. Brewster, Garry R. Brian, Graziella Bruno, H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Anna Bugge, Con Burns, Antonio Cabrera De León, Joseph Cacciottolo, Tilema Cama, Christine Cameron, José Camolas, Günay Can, Ana Paula C. Cândido, Vincenzo Capuano, Viviane C. Cardoso, Axel C. Carlsson, Maria J. Carvalho, Felipe F. Casanueva, Juan Pablo Casas, Carmelo A. Caserta, Snehalatha Chamukuttan, Angelique W. Chan, Queenie Chan, Himanshu K. Chaturvedi, Nishi Chaturvedi, Chien Jen Chen, Fangfang Chen, Huashuai Chen, Shuohua Chen, Zhengming Chen, Ching Yu Cheng, Angela Chetrit, Arnaud Chiolero, Shu Ti Chiou, Adela Chirita-Emandi, Belong Cho, Yumi Cho, Kaare Christensen, Jerzy Chudek, Renata Cifkova, Frank Claessens, Els Clays, Hans Concin, Cyrus Cooper, Rachel Cooper, Tara C. Coppinger, Simona Costanzo, Dominique Cottel, Chris Cowell, Cora L. Craig, Ana B. Crujeiras, Graziella D’Arrigo, Eleonora d’Orsi, Jean Dallongeville, Albertino Damasceno, Camilla T. Damsgaard, Rachel Dankner, Luc Dauchet, Guy De Backer, Dirk De Bacquer, Giovanni de Gaetano, Stefaan De Henauw, Delphine De Smedt, Mohan Deepa, Alexander D. Deev, Abbas Dehghan, Hélène Delisle, Francis Delpeuch, Valérie Deschamps, Klodian Dhana, Augusto F. Di Castelnuovo, Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa, Alejandro Diaz, Shirin Djalalinia, Ha T.P. Do, Annette J. Dobson, Chiara Donfrancesco, Silvana P. Donoso, Angela Döring, Kouamelan Doua, Wojciech Drygas, Vilnis Dzerve, Eruke E. Egbagbe, Robert Eggertsen, Ulf Ekelund, Jalila El Ati, Paul Elliott, Reina Engle-Stone, Rajiv T. Erasmus, Cihangir Erem, Louise Eriksen, Jorge Escobedo-de la Peña, Alun Evans, David Faeh, Caroline H. Fall, Farshad Farzadfar, Francisco J. Felix-Redondo, Trevor S. Ferguson, Daniel Fernández-Bergés, Daniel Ferrante, Marika Ferrari, Catterina Ferreccio, Jean Ferrieres, Joseph D. Finn, Krista Fischer, Eric Monterubio Flores, Bernhard Föger, Leng Huat Foo, Ann Sofie Forslund, Maria Forsner, Stephen P. Fortmann, Heba M. Fouad, Damian K. Francis, Maria Do Carmo Franco, Oscar H. Franco, Guillermo Frontera, Flavio D. Fuchs, Sandra C. Fuchs, Yuki Fujita, Takuro Furusawa, Zbigniew Gaciong, Mihai Gafencu, Dickman Gareta, Sarah P. Garnett, Jean Michel Gaspoz, Magda Gasull, Louise Gates, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Anoosheh Ghasemian, Simona Giampaoli, Francesco Gianfagna, Jonathan Giovannelli, Aleksander Giwercman, Rebecca A. Goldsmith, Helen Gonçalves, Marcela Gonzalez Gross, Juan P. González Rivas, Mariano Bonet Gorbea, Frederic Gottrand, Sidsel Graff-Iversen, Dušan Grafnetter, Aneta Grajda, Maria G. Grammatikopoulou, Ronald D. Gregor, Tomasz Grodzicki, Anders Grøntved, Grabriella Gruden, Vera Grujic, Dongfeng Gu, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo, Ong Peng Guan, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ramiro Guerrero, Idris Guessous, Andre L. Guimaraes, Martin C. Gulliford, Johanna Gunnlaugsdottir, Marc Gunter, Xiuhua Guo, Yin Guo, Prakash C. Gupta, Oye Gureje, Beata Gurzkowska, Laura Gutierrez, Felix Gutzwiller, Jytte Halkjær, Ian R. Hambleton, Rebecca Hardy, Rachakulla Hari Kumar, Jun Hata, Alison J. Hayes, Jiang He, Marleen Elisabeth Hendriks, Leticia Hernandez Cadena, Sauli Herrala, Ramin Heshmat, Ilpo Tapani Hihtaniemi, Sai Yin Ho, Suzanne C. Ho, Michael Hobbs, Albert Hofman, Claudia M. Hormiga, Bernardo L. Horta, Leila Houti, Christina Howitt, Thein Thein Htay, Aung Soe Htet, Maung Maung Than Htike, Yonghua Hu, Abdullatif Husseini, Chinh Nguyen Huu, Inge Huybrechts, Nahla Hwalla, Licia Iacoviello, Anna G. Iannone, Mohsen M. Ibrahim, Nayu Ikeda, M. Arfan Ikram, Vilma E. Irazola, Muhammad Islam, Vanja Ivkovic, Masanori Iwasaki, Rod T. Jackson, Jeremy M. Jacobs, Tazeen Jafar, Kazi M. Jamil, Konrad Jamrozik, Imre Janszky, Grazyna Jasienska, Bojan Jelakovic, Chao Qiang Jiang, Michel Joffres, Mattias Johansson, Jost B. Jonas, Torben Jørgensen, Pradeep Joshi, Anne Juolevi, Gregor Jurak, Vesna Jureša, Rudolf Kaaks, Anthony Kafatos, Ofra Kalter-Leibovici, Efthymios Kapantais, Amir Kasaeian, Joanne Katz, Prabhdeep Kaur, Maryam Kavousi, Ulrich Keil, Lital Keinan Boker, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Roya Kelishadi, Han C.G. Kemper, Andre P. Kengne, Mathilde Kersting, Timothy Key, Yousef Saleh Khader, Davood Khalili, Young Ho Khang, Kay Tee H. Khaw, Ilse M.S.L. Khouw, Stefan Kiechl, Japhet Killewo, Jeongseon Kim, Jeannette Klimont, Jurate Klumbiene, Bhawesh Koirala, Elin Kolle, Patrick Kolsteren, Paul Korrovits, Seppo Koskinen, Katsuyasu Kouda, Slawomir Koziel, Wolfgang Kratzer, Steinar Krokstad, Daan Kromhout, Herculina S. Kruger, Ruzena Kubinova, Urho M. Kujala, Krzysztof Kula, Zbigniew Kulaga, R. Krishna Kumar, Pawel Kurjata, Yadlapalli S. Kusuma, Kari Kuulasmaa, Catherine Kyobutungi, Fatima Zahra Laamiri, Tiina Laatikainen, Carl Lachat, Youcef Laid, Tai Hing Lam, Orlando Landrove, Vera Lanska, Georg Lappas, Bagher Larijani, Lars E. Laugsand, Khanh Le Nguyen Bao, Tuyen D. Le, Catherine Leclercq, Jeannette Lee, Jeonghee Lee, Terho Lehtimäki, Rampal Lekhraj, Luz M. León-Muñoz, Yanping Li, Christa L. Lilly, Wei Yen Lim, M. Fernanda Lima-Costa, Hsien Ho Lin, Xu Lin, Allan Linneberg, Lauren Lissner, Mieczyslaw Litwin, Jing Liu, Roberto Lorbeer, Paulo A. Lotufo, José Eugenio Lozano, Dalia Luksiene, Annamari Lundqvist, Nuno Lunet, Per Lytsy, Guansheng Ma, Jun Ma, George L.L. Machado-Coelho, Suka Machi, Stefania Maggi, Dianna J. Magliano, Bernard Maire, Marcia Makdisse, Reza Malekzadeh, Rahul Malhotra, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna Rao, Sofia Malyutina, Yannis Manios, Jim I. Mann, Enzo Manzato, Paula Margozzini, Oonagh Markey, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Jaume Marrugat, Yves Martin-Prevel, Reynaldo Martorell, Shariq R. Masoodi, Ellisiv B. Mathiesen, Tandi E. Matsha, Artur Mazur, Jean Claude N. Mbanya, Shelly R. McFarlane, Stephen T. McGarvey, Martin McKee, Stela McLachlan, Rachael M. McLean, Breige A. McNulty, Safiah Md Yusof, Sounnia Mediene-Benchekor, Aline Meirhaeghe, Christa Meisinger, Ana Maria B. Menezes, Gert B.M. Mensink, Indrapal I. Meshram, Andres Metspalu, Jie Mi, Kim F. Michaelsen, Kairit Mikkel, Jody C. Miller, Juan Francisco Miquel, J. Jaime Miranda, Marjeta Mišigoj-Durakovic, Mostafa K. Mohamed, Kazem Mohammad, Noushin Mohammadifard, Viswanathan Mohan, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff, Drude Molbo, Niels C. Møller, Dénes Molnár, Charles K. Mondo, Eric A. Monterrubio, Kotsedi Daniel K. Monyeki, Leila B. Moreira, Alain Morejon, Luis A. Moreno, Karen Morgan, Erik Lykke Mortensen, George Moschonis, Malgorzata Mossakowska, Aya Mostafa, Jorge Mota, Mohammad Esmaeel Motlagh, Jorge Motta, Thet Thet Mu, Maria Lorenza Muiesan, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Neil Murphy, Jaakko Mursu, Elaine M. Murtagh, Kamarul Imran Musa, Vera Musil, Gabriele Nagel, Harunobu Nakamura, Jana Námešná, Ei Ei K. Nang, Vinay B. Nangia, Martin Nankap, Sameer Narake, Eva Maria Navarrete-Muñoz, William A. Neal, Ilona Nenko, Martin Neovius, Flavio Nervi, Hannelore K. Neuhauser, Nguyen D. Nguyen, Quang Ngoc Nguyen, Ramfis E. Nieto-Martínez, Guang Ning, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Sania Nishtar, Marianna Noale, Teresa Norat, Davide Noto, Mohannad Al Nsour, Kyungwon Oh, Iman H. Olayan, Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto, Maciej Oltarzewski, Mohd A. Omar, Altan Onat, Pedro Ordunez, Ana P. Ortiz, Merete Osler, Clive Osmond, Sergej M. Ostojic, Johanna A. Otero, Kim Overvad, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Fred Michel Paccaud, Cristina Padez, Elena Pahomova, Andrzej Pajak, Domenico Palli, Alberto Palloni, Luigi Palmieri, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Francesco Panza, Winsome R. Parnell, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Ivan Pecin, Mangesh S. Pednekar, Petra H. Peeters, Sergio Viana Peixoto, Markku Peltonen, Alexandre C. Pereira, Cynthia M. Pérez, Annette Peters, Janina Petkeviciene, Niloofar Peykari, Son Thai Pham, Iris Pigeot, Hynek Pikhart, Aida Pilav, Lorenza Pilotto, Francesco Pistelli, Freda Pitakaka, Aleksandra Piwonska, Pedro Plans-Rubió, Bee Koon Poh, Miquel Porta, Marileen L.P. Portegies, Dimitrios Poulimeneas, Rajendra Pradeepa, Mathur Prashant, Jacqueline F. Price, Maria Puiu, Margus Punab, Radwan F. Qasrawi, Mostafa Qorbani, Tran Quoc Bao, Ivana Radic, Ricardas Radisauskas, Mah mudur Rahman, Olli Raitakari, Manu Raj, Sudha Ramachandra Rao, Ambady Ramachandran, Jacqueline Ramke, Rafel Ramos, Sanjay Rampal, Finn Rasmussen, Josep Redon, Paul Ferdinand M. Reganit, Robespierre Ribeiro, Elio Riboli, Fernando Rigo, Tobias F. Rinke de Wit, Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, Juan A. Rivera, Sian M. Robinson, Cynthia Robitaille, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, María Del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, Laura A. Rodríguez-Villamizar, Rosalba Rojas-Martinez, Nipa Rojroong-Wasinkul, Dora Romaguera, Kimmo Ronkainen, Annika Rosengren, Ian Rouse, Adolfo Rubinstein, Frank J. Rühli, Ornelas Rui, Blanca Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Andrea R.V. Russo Horimoto, Marcin Rutkowski, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Harshpal S. Sachdev, Olfa Saidi, Benoit Salanave, Eduardo Salazar Martinez, Veikko Salomaa, Jukka T. Salonen, Massimo Salvetti, Jose Sánchez-Abanto, Dermot O'Reilly

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Abstract

Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-29
JournaleLife
Volume5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jul 2016

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    Bentham, J., Di Cesare, M., Stevens, G. A., Zhou, B., Bixby, H., Cowan, M., Fortunato, L., Bennett, J. E., Danaei, G., Hajifathalian, K., Lu, Y., Riley, L. M., Laxmaiah, A., Kontis, V., Paciorek, C. J., Ezzati, M., Abdeen, Z. A., Hamid, Z. A., Abu-Rmeileh, N. M., ... O'Reilly, D. (2016). A century of trends in adult human height. eLife, 5, 1-29. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001