Existing work on rotation-based bridge monitoring has focused on indirect methods, such as bridge weigh-in-motion or influence line approaches. However, these approaches require increased instrumentation complexity, and require calibration, necessitating bridge closures. In this paper, we explore the potential of using rotation measurements to create a more practical and cost-effective monitoring system. To this end, we present a damage detection method which directly analyses bridge rotation data measured under live, free-flow traffic loading. We show how the Earth Mover's Distance, typically used in statistics and image processing, can be applied directly on end-of-span rotation measurement data to achieve effective damage detection and localisation. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the approach's robustness to the confounding effects of temperature variation and traffic diversity (vehicle type, loading, and velocity). The direct rotation measurement approach is applied to data from an in-service short-span bridge to demonstrate the technique's capability with free-flow traffic loading.
- Damage detection Damage Localisation Earth Movers’ Distance Rotation Monitoring Confounding effects