A doggy tale: Risk of zoonotic infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from live licenced bacterial veterinary vaccines for cats and dogs

John E Moore, Jacqueline C Rendall, Beverley C Millar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

What is Known and Objective:
Live-attenuated bacterial veterinary vaccines can constitute an infection risk for individuals with any defect in their phagocytic function, including chronic granulomatous disease, leukocyte adhesion deficiency, myeloperoxidase deficiency, as well as Chediak-Higashi syndrome, from accidental acquisition of licenced attenuated live bacterial vaccine, at vaccination or from their vaccinated pet. Ownership of small companion animals, including cats and dogs, is popular within the cystic fibrosis (CF) community. These animals require vaccines as part of their routine care, which may involve live viral and bacterial vaccines, with potential for infection in the CF owner. This report examines the scope of current canine and feline vaccines, with particular emphasis on veterinary vaccination strategies against the Gram-negative pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica and describes new vaccine innovations offering protection to both pet and CF owner. 
Comment: 
The Gram-negative bacterium, Bordetella bronchoseptica, may cause respiratory disease in small companion animals, as well as in certain human vulnerable groups, including those with CF. Live licenced veterinary bacterial vaccines for Bordetella bronchiseptica (Kennel Cough) are available for cats and dogs, which are an infection concern for humans with CF who may come into contact with vaccinated animals. Live licenced veterinary bacterial vaccines for Bordetella bronchiseptica (Kennel Cough) are available for intranasal administration to cats and dogs. These vaccines require a withdrawal period of vaccinated animal from vulnerable owner, ranging from 35 days - 11 weeks. Recently, a new dead IM vaccine is now available not requiring exclusion of the vaccinated pet from CF owner. 
What is new & conclusion: 
CF pharmacists, hospital pharmacists and community pharmacists are important custodians of vaccine-related advice to people with CF, who are frequently consulted for such advice. Pharmacists should be aware of the recent innovations in veterinary medicines, so that they can give appropriate advice to people with CF when asked. Immunocompromised patients, that is those with CF or those with any defect in their phagocytic function (chronic granulomatous disease, leukocyte adhesion deficiency, myeloperoxidase deficiency, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) should avoid exposure to live veterinary bacterial vaccines and seek animal vaccination utilising non-live vaccines. Most importantly, this manuscript highlights the development of a new veterinary vaccine for dogs, which we want to make the CF healthcare community aware of, which is an acellular dead vaccine, so that those patients with dogs needing annual vaccination can select this vaccine pathway, thereby minimising risk of infection from the vaccine strains and avoiding the social exclusion between CF patient and their pet. CF patients should understand the potential infection implications of live-attenuated viral and bacterial strains as vaccines, whether these are small companion animals, exotic animals or large farm animals. Patients should make their veterinarian aware of their CF status, so that a safe and efficacious vaccine strategy is used, both mitigating the potential infection risks from live vaccine components with the CF patient, but simultaneously offering maximum immunological protection to the animal.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Early online date30 Jul 2021
DOIs
Publication statusEarly online date - 30 Jul 2021

Keywords

  • dog
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica
  • feline
  • vaccination.
  • cat
  • pertussis
  • cystic fibrosis
  • live-attenuated vaccine

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