This paper presents a practical algorithm for the simulation of interactive deformation in a 3D polygonal mesh model. The algorithm combines the conventional simulation of deformation using a spring-mass-damping model, solved by explicit numerical integration, with a set of heuristics to describe certain features of the transient behaviour, to increase the speed and stability of solution. In particular, this algorithm was designed to be used in the simulation of synthetic environments where it is necessary to model realistically, in real time, the effect on non-rigid surfaces being touched, pushed, pulled or squashed. Such objects can be solid or hollow, and have plastic, elastic or fabric-like properties. The algorithm is presented in an integrated form including collision detection and adaptive refinement so that it may be used in a self-contained way as part of a simulation loop to include human interface devices that capture data and render a realistic stereoscopic image in real time. The algorithm is designed to be used with polygonal mesh models representing complex topology, such as the human anatomy in a virtual-surgery training simulator. The paper evaluates the model behaviour qualitatively and then concludes with some examples of the use of the algorithm.
|Number of pages||28|
|Journal||Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2011|
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