A Low Complexity Video Watermarking in H.264 Compressed Domain

Azadeh Mansouri, Ahmad Mahmoudi Aznaveh, Farah Torkamani-Azar, Fatih Kurugollu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, a new blind and readable H.264 compressed domain watermarking scheme is proposed in which the embedding/extracting is performed using the syntactic elements of the compressed bit stream. As a result, it is not necessary to fully decode a compressed video stream both in the embedding and extracting processes. The method also presents an inexpensive spatiotemporal analysis that selects the appropriate submacroblocks for embedding, increasing watermark robustness while reducing its impact on visual quality. Meanwhile, the proposed method prevents bit-rate increase and restricts it within an acceptable limit by selecting appropriate quantized residuals for watermark insertion. Regarding watermarking demands such as imperceptibility, bit-rate control, and appropriate level of security, a priority matrix is defined which can be adjusted based on the application requirements. The resulted flexibility expands the usability of the proposed method.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5582233
Pages (from-to)649-657
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


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