Variations in the intrinsic radiosensitivity of different cells to ionizing radiation is now widely believed to be a significant driver in differences in response to radiotherapy. While the mechanisms of radiosensitivity have been extensively studied in the laboratory, there are a lack of models which integrate this knowledge into a predictive framework. This paper presents an overview of the Medras model, which has been developed to provide a mechanistic framework in which different radiation responses can be modelled and individual responses predicted. This model simulates the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage, incorporating the overall kinetics of repair and its fidelity, to predict a range of biological endpoints including residual DNA damage, mutation, chromosome aberration, and cell death. Validation of this model against a range of exposure types is presented, including considerations of varying radiation qualities and dose-rates. This approach has the potential to inform new tools to deliver mechanistic predictions of radiation sensitivity, and support future developments in treatment personalization.