A smartphone based ophthalmoscope

Mario E Giardini, Iain A T Livingstone, Stewart Jordan, Nigel M Bolster, Tunde Peto, Matthew Burton, Andrew Bastawrous

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

37 Citations (Scopus)


A low-cost alternative to the direct ophthalmoscope, a simple optical adapter for a smartphone, is described. It can overcome many of the technical challenges of fundoscopy, providing a high-resolution view of the retina through an un-dilated pupil. This can be used in locations with limited diagnostic resources to detect conditions such as glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Comparison of optic nerve images from commercial retinal screening cameras with the smartphone adapter demonstrates strong evidence for no difference in performance in glaucomatous disc grading (p=0.98, paired student t test, n=300).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4244-7929-0
Publication statusPublished - 06 Nov 2014

Publication series

NameIEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)1094-687X
ISSN (Electronic)1558-4615


  • Cell Phones
  • Cohort Studies
  • Equipment Design
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Humans
  • Kenya
  • Ophthalmoscopes
  • Ophthalmoscopy
  • Optic Disk
  • Optic Nerve Diseases
  • Poverty
  • Pupil
  • Retina
  • Software
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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