In this paper, we present a systematic review of the factors influencing the social and emotional development of twice exceptional students. Eight studies among 331 published in English between January 2000 and January 2022 were determined through electronic databases. We conducted a systematic literature review by following the steps identified by PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses), including the processes related to data sources, search, data collection, eligibility criteria, data selection, and data analysis. Six themes were identified through the thematic analysis of these eight studies: self-concept, environment, friendship, achievement, labeling, and bullying. As a result of the analysis of the articles, it was seen that “achievement” affected the social and emotional development of twice exceptional students positively, while “bullying” affected the development negatively. However, other themes such as labeling, environment, friendship and self-concept were found to affect social and emotional development both positively and negatively.