Access-Aware DRAM Failure-Rate Estimation under Relaxed Refresh Operations

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Abstract

In recent years, there has been a growing interest on relaxing the pessimistic DRAM refresh rate due to the incurred power and throughput loss. Undeniably, a critical factor in determining the refresh rate relaxation that can be achieved lies on the degree of the DRAM error-rate deterioration that is incurred and on the amount of estimated errors that can be handled by system mitigation schemes which are mainly being evaluated in simulators. To estimate the DRAM faults under relaxed refresh, the majority of the existing works rely on estimated DRAM failure probability models using only the spatial distribution of the DRAM retention time across the memory cells.We observe that such failure models have neglected the intricate dependence on the memory accesses, which inherently refresh t he accessed rows.In this paper, we propose that the intervals between consecutive accesses must also be considered during DRAM simulation.We show that the estimation of the distribution of accesses poses a lot of challenges mainly due to the time consuming full system simulations that are required. To address such challenges, this paper presents one of the first efforts to model the access timedependent DRAM retention time by developing a fast simulation infrastructure based on binary instrumentation. The basic idea behind the proposed approach lies on the quantification of the time elapsed between consecutive memory accesses on thesame row and its relation to the DRAM failure probability,which is then being used for a more accurate fault injection.The introduced overheads of the instrumentation functions are measured during native execution allowing accurate correctionsof the time elapsed between consecutive accesses. The efficacy of our framework is being evaluated using various artificial benchmarks. Results show that our scheme helps to limit the misprediction of estimated errors of current error-injection models.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - 2017 17th International Conference on Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation, SAMOS 2017
Subtitle of host publicationArchitectures, Modeling, and Simulation, SAMOS 2017
Publisher IEEE
Pages292-299
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-5386-3437-0
ISBN (Print)9781538634370
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Apr 2018
Event2017 IEEE Conference on Embedded Computer Systems: Architecures, Modelling and Simulation (SAMOS XVII) - Samos, Greece, Samos, Greece
Duration: 16 Jul 201720 Jul 2017
Conference number: XVII

Conference

Conference2017 IEEE Conference on Embedded Computer Systems: Architecures, Modelling and Simulation (SAMOS XVII)
Abbreviated titleSAMOS 2017
Country/TerritoryGreece
CitySamos
Period16/07/201720/07/2017

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