A.C.I.D - an improved LSD technique for accurate line profile retrieval

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Stellar activity and planetary effects induce radial velocity (RV) offsets and cause temporal distortions in the shape of the stellar line profile. Hence, accurately probing the stellar line profile offers a wealth of information on both the star itself and any orbiting planets. Typically, Cross-Correlation Functions (CCFs) are used as a proxy for the stellar line profile. The shape of CCFs, however, can be distorted by line blending and aliasing limiting the stellar and planetary physics that can be probed from them. Least-squares deconvolution (LSD) offers an alternative that directly fits the mean line profile of the spectrum to produce a high-precision profile. In this paper, we introduce our novel method ACID (Accurate Continuum fItting and Deconvolution) that builds on LSD techniques by simultaneously fitting the spectral continuum and line profile as well as performing LSD in effective optical depth. Tests on model data revealed ACID can accurately identify and correct the spectral continuum to retrieve an injected line profile. ACID was also applied to archival HARPS data obtained during the transit of HD189733b. The application of the Reloaded Rossiter-McLaughlin technique to both ACID profiles and HARPS CCFs shows ACID residual profiles improved the out-of-line RMS by over $5\%$ compared to CCFs. Furthermore, ACID profiles are shown to exhibit a Voigt profile shape that better describes the expected profile shape of the stellar line profile. This improved representation shows that ACID better preserves the stellar and planetary physics encoded in the stellar line profile shape for slow rotating stars.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2071–2086
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
Early online date08 Mar 2024
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024


  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics


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