Acoustic and entropy waves in nozzles in combustion noise framework

Y. Mahmoudi, A.P. Dowling, S.R. Stow

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A low-order model is presented to study the propagation and interaction of acoustic and entropic perturbations through a convergent-divergent nozzle. The calculations deal with choked, unchoked, as well as compact and non-compact nozzles. In the choked case, a normal shock exists in the divergent section of the nozzle. To validate the models developed, cylindrical configurations corresponding to Entropy-WaveGenerator (EWG) and Hot-Acoustic-Testrig (HAT) of DLR are studied. For the EWG, an entropy wave is generated upstream of a nozzle by an electrical heating device, and for the HAT a speaker is used to generate pressure waves. In these two configurations and for the choked case, the supersonic region between the nozzle throat and the normal shock is assumed to be acoustically compact. The results of the low-order model are found to give excellent agreement with the experimental results of the EWG and HAT rigs. To give insight into the physics, the model is used to undertake a parametric study for a range of nozzle lengths and shock strengths. The low order model is finally used to calculate the direct to indirect (entropy and vorticity) combustion noise ratio for an idealised thin-annular combustor. For this model combustor the direct acoustic noise is found to dominate within the combustor while, the entropy indirect noise is found to be the main source of noise downstream of the choked nozzle. The indirect vorticity noise has a negligible contribution. 
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalAIAA Journal
Early online date15 May 2017
Publication statusEarly online date - 15 May 2017


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