Adsorption mechanisms of removing heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solution using date pits solid adsorbent

M.A. Al-Ghouti, Xiaolin Li, Y. Salamh, N. Al-Laqtah, Gavin Walker, Mohamad Ahmad

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179 Citations (Scopus)


A potential usefulness of raw date pits as an inexpensive solid adsorbent for methylene blue (MB), copper ion (Cu2+), and cadmium ion (Cd2+) has been demonstrated in this work. This work was conducted to provide fundamental information from the study of equilibrium adsorption isotherms and to investigate the adsorption mechanisms in the adsorption of MB, Cu2+, and Cd2+ onto raw date pits. The fit of two models, namely Langmuir and Freundlich models, to experimental data obtained from the adsorption isotherms was checked. The adsorption capacities of the raw date pits towards MB and both Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich models were found to be 277.8, 35.9, and 39.5 mg g(-1), respectively. Surface functional groups on the raw date pits surface substantially influence the adsorption characteristics of MB, Cu2+, and Cd2+ onto the raw date pits. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies show clear differences in both absorbances and shapes of the bands and in their locations before and after solute adsorption. Two mechanisms were observed for MB adsorption, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attraction, while other mechanisms were observed for Cu2+ and Cd2+. For Cu2+, binding two cellulose/lignin units together is the predominant mechanism. For Cd2+. the predominant mechanism is by binding itself using two hydroxyl groups in the cellulose/lignin unit. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)510-520
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Engineering


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