The airway epithelium is the primary target of respiratory syncytial virus infection. It is an important component of the antiviral immune response. It contributes to the recruitment and activation of innate immune cells from the periphery through the secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Here we provide a broad review of the cytokines and chemokines secreted from human airway epithelial cell models during RSV infection based on a comprehensive literature review. Epithelium-derived chemokines constitute most inflammatory mediators secreted from the epithelium during RSV infection. This suggests chemoattraction of peripheral immune cells, such as monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and natural killer cells as a key function of the epithelium. Reports of epithelium-derived cytokines are limited. Recent research has started to identify novel cytokines, the functions of which remain largely unknown in the wider context of the RSV immune response. We argue that the correct choice of in vitro models used for investigations of epithelial immune functions during RSV infection could facilitate greater progress in this field.
|Publication status||Accepted - 17 Jul 2019|