This paper presents a new method for complex power flow tracing that can be used for allocating the transmission loss to loads or generators. Two algorithms for upstream tracing (UST) and downstream tracing (DST) of the complex power are introduced. UST algorithm traces the complex power extracted by loads back to source nodes and assigns a fraction of the complex power flow through each line to each load. DST algorithm traces the output of the generators down to the sink nodes determining the contributions of each generator to the complex power flow and losses through each line. While doing so, active- and reactive-power flows as well as complex losses are considered simultaneously, not separately as most of the available methods do. Transmission losses are taken into consideration during power flow tracing. Unbundling line losses are carried out using an equation, which has a physical basis, and considers the coupling between active- and reactive-power flows as well as the cross effects of active and reactive powers on active and reactive losses. The tracing algorithms introduced can be considered direct to a good extent, as there is no need for exhaustive search to determine the flow paths as these are determined in a systematic way during the course of tracing. Results of application of the proposed method are also presented.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Control and Systems Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering