Deficiency of UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase is implicated in type III galactosemia. Two variants, p.K161N-hGALE and p.D175N-hGALE, have been previously found in combination with other alleles in patients with a mild form of the disease. Both variants were studied in vivo and in vitro and showed different levels of impairment. p.K161N-hGALE was severely impaired with substantially reduced enzymatic activity, increased thermal stability, reduced cofactor binding and no ability to rescue the galactose-sensitivity of gal10-null yeast. Interestingly p.K161N-hGALE showed less impairment of activity with UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine in comparison to UDP-galactose. Differential scanning fluorimetry revealed that p.K161N-hGALE was more stable than the wild-type protein and only changed stability in the presence of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and NAD(+). p.D175N-hGALE essentially rescued the galactose-sensitivity of gal10-null yeast, was less stable than the wild-type protein but showed increased stability in the presence of substrates and cofactor. We postulate that p.K161N-hGALE causes its effects by abolishing an important interaction between the protein and the cofactor, whereas p.D175N-hGALE is predicted to remove a stabilizing salt bridge between the ends of two a-helices that contain residues that interact with NAD(+). These results suggest that the cofactor binding is dynamic and that its loss results in significant structural changes that may be important in disease causation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Molecular Medicine
McCorvie, T. J., Liu, Y., Frazer, A., Gleason, T. J., Fridovich-Keil, J. L., & Timson, D. J. (2012). Altered cofactor binding affects stability and activity of human UDP-galactose 4′-epimerase: Implications for type III galactosemia. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1822(10), 1516-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2012.05.007