Amsler grid versus 10-2 test in primary open angle glaucoma

Olusola Olawoye

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Abstract

Background:
Glaucoma is the leading cause of global irreversible blindness. The goal of management in glaucoma lies in its early detection and treatment to prevent further optic neuropathy. Available equipment for early glaucoma detection is not cost-effective or readily available in resource-scarce settings such as Nigeria. Thus, there is a need for a simple cost-effective tool to detect glaucomatous central visual field (CVF) defects in all the stages of glaucoma within the community in resource scarce-settings.

Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this article is to determine the validity of the Amsler grid in detecting central glaucomatous visual field defects in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG).

Materials and Methods:
This was a cross-sectional study of follow-up glaucoma patients at a secondary eye care hospital in Nigeria. All patients had detailed ophthalmic examination in addition to 24-2 and 10-2 CVF tests and Amsler grid test. POAG was classified using the Hodapp–Parrish–Anderson criteria into mild, moderate, and severe on 24-2 CVF. The diagnostic validity of the Amsler grid was calculated using the 10-2 CVF as a reference standard. Regression analyses were performed between the Amsler grid scotoma area and 10-2 CVF parameters [mean deviation (MD), scotoma extent (SE), and scotoma mean depth (SMD)].

Results:
A total of 150 eyes of 150 patients were enrolled. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the Amsler grid compared with the 10-2 CVF was 49.5%, 95.9%, 96.2%, and 47.9%, respectively, with an area under curve of 0.7. Sensitivity increased with increasing severity (P < 0.001) from 20.0%, 31.0%, and 76.6% in mild, moderate, and severe POAG, respectively. The Amsler grid scotoma area had the strongest relationship with the 10-2 MD, followed by 10-2 SE and 10-2 SMD with a quadratic R2 of 0.579, 0.370, and 0.307, respectively.

Conclusion:
The Amsler grid has a low sensitivity in mild-to-moderate POAG. However, it may serve as an adjunctive tool in resource-scarce settings for detection of severe POAG in the community by primary eye care providers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)92-99
JournalJournal of West African College of Surgeons
Volume13
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 20 Mar 2023

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