We present a method to determine the bulk temperature of a single crystal diamond sample at an X-Ray free electron laser using inelastic X-ray scattering. The experiment was performed at the high energy density instrument at the European XFEL GmbH, Germany. The technique, based on inelastic X-ray scattering and the principle of detailed balance, was demonstrated to give accurate temperature measurements, within 8 % for both room temperature diamond and heated diamond to 500 K. Here, the temperature was increased in a controlled way using a resistive heater to test theoretical predictions of the scaling of the signal with temperature. The method was tested by validating the energy of the phonon modes with previous measurements made at room temperature using inelastic X-ray scattering and neutron scattering techniques. This technique could be used to determine the bulk temperature in transient systems with a temporal resolution of 50 fs and for which accurate measurements of thermodynamic properties are vital to build accurate equation of state and transport models.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 163270. This work was supported by the Department of Energy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 and as part of the Panofsky Fellowship awarded to E.E.M. We acknowledge European XFEL in Schenefeld, Germany, for provision of X-ray free-electron laser beamtime at HED and would like to thank the staff for their assistance. Data recorded at the European XFEL is available at 10.22003/XFEL.EU-DATA-002191-00. JSW acknowledges support from the UK EPSRC under grant number EP/S025065/1. O.H. and O.K acknowledge support from the Oxford Centre for High Energy Density Science (OxCHEDS). We acknowledge Heike Marschner and Berit Marx for the preparation of the high resolution silicon (533) channel cut crystal. This material is partially based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Science under Award Number DE-SC0019268 awarded to T.G.W. K.A. and R.R. acknowledge support from the DFG (FOR 2440).
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