Exploring high efficiency, low cost and stable photocatalysts that enable full solar spectrum (UV, visible and near-infrared) utilization for photocatalytic hydrogen generation still faces huge challenge. Herein, a Co2P/CdS Z-scheme photocatalyst without noble metal is rationally fabricated to achieve ultrabroad UV-Vis-NIR-harvesting. Compared to Pt/CdS, CdS and Co2P, the optimized Co2P/CdS exhibits much more outstanding performance with the HER rate of 262.16, 66.98 and 3.93 mmol/g/h under solar, visible (780 nm > λ > 420 nm) and NIR (λ > 780 nm) light, respectively. Particularly, 10% Co2P/CdS displays a prominent AQE value of 2.26% at 700 nm. The Z-scheme transform route can effectively enhance the separation of charge carriers in Co2P/CdS for UV-Vis-driven H2 evolution reaction (HER), as confirmed by PL and photoelectrochemical measurements. More importantly, the Co-S bonds at the interface demonstrated by FTIR, Raman (mapping), XPS and density functional theory (DFT) calculations can act as “bridge” for charge transfer, thereby enhancing the full spectrum-driven H2 evolution. To our best knowledge, this is a rare research on full spectrum-driven photocatalytic HER without noble metal.