This paper develops an enhanced robust fault tolerant control using a novel adaptive fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative-based nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode (AF-PID-NFTSM) control for a class of second-order uncertain nonlinear systems. In this approach, a new type of sliding surface, called proportional-integral-derivative (PID)-nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode (NFTSM) (PID-NFTSM) which combines the benefits of the PID and NFTSM sliding surfaces, is proposed to enhance the robustness and reduce the steady-state error, whilst preserving the great property of the conventional NFTSM controller. A fuzzy approximator is designed to approximate the uncertain system dynamics and an adaptive law is developed to estimate the bound of the approximation error so that the proposed robust controller does not require a need of the prior knowledge of the bound of the uncertainties and faults and the exact system dynamics. The proposed approach is then applied for attitude control of a spacecraft. The simulation results verify the superior performance of the proposed approaches over other existing advanced robust fault tolerant controllers.