Background/Aims:Mid-gut carcinoids (MGC) are the most common of the gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours. There is a lack of reliable prognostic indicators for MGC. Cox-2 and Bcl-2 were evaluated as prognostic biomarkers in a cohort of well-characterised non-appendiceal MGC. Methods: Tissue from the primary MGC tumours of 37 patients was subjected to immunohistochemical detection of Cox-2 and Bcl-2. In 9 cases tissue from secondary lesions was also examined. The study assessed whether tumour-associated Cox-2 and Bcl-2 expression were related to patient survival. Results: Cox-2 expression was demonstrated in 30/36 primary tumours. When all tumours were analysed Cox-regression analysis indicated a trend towards worsening survival with increasing Cox-2 histoscore (intensity x proportion; hazard ratio 1.53, 95%CI 0.93, 2.52; p=0.09). Analysis of Cox-2 positive tumours revealed a highly significant association between increasing histoscore and decreased survival (hazard ratio 3.03, 95%CI 1.33, 6.91, p=0.008). Tumour-associated Bcl-2 expression had no effect on patient survival (hazard ratio 1.12, 95% CI 0.42, 2.99 p=0.82). There was no significant association between Cox-2 and Bcl-2 expression (Ã¯?Â£2 p=0.16), or Cox-2 histoscore and Bcl-2 expression (MWU p=0.59). Analysis of the Cox-2 histoscores of primary tumours and their corresponding secondary lesions, revealed a statistically significant trend towards increasing histoscore in the latter (Wilcoxon p=0.04). Conclusions: This study has provided evidence that Cox-2 expression in primary MGC may be associated with a more negative prognostic outlook.
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