The psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) as a clinical research instrument for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients were investigated in a translated Chinese version of the instrument. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the RSES to establish its psychometric properties in 128 ACS patients over two observation points (within 1 week and 6 months post-admission for ACS). Internal and test-retest reliability of the RSES-TOT (all-items) and RSES-POS sub-scale (positively valenced items) were found to be acceptable. The RSES-NEG sub-scale (negatively valenced items) lacked acceptable internal reliability. The underlying factor structure of the RSES comprised two distinct but related factors, though there was inconsistency in best model fit indices at the 1-week observation point. The use of the RSES as two sub-scales (RSES-POS and RSES-NEG) may be clinically useful in evaluating the influence of this important psychological construct on the health outcomes of patients with ACS. Directions for future research are indicated.