An open-source platform for 3D-printed redox flow battery test cells

Hugh O'Connor, Josh J. Bailey, Oana M. Istrate, Peter A. A. Klusener, Rob Watson, Stephen Glover, Francesco Iacoviello, Dan J. L. Brett, Paul R. Shearing, Peter Nockemann*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
247 Downloads (Pure)


The development of new, large-scale stationary energy storage technologies, such as redox flow batteries, is vital to fully utilise renewable energy resources. However, test cells capable of assisting in this development can be prohibitively expensive and unreliable. Here, an open-source, low-cost, customisable 3D-printed test cell is presented as an alternative. These newly developed cells are designed to be printable using affordable desktop 3D-printers and readily available polymers. A simulation-led design optimisation yielded an improved internal manifold geometry that demonstrated improved real-world performance. The polymers used have been tested for chemical compatibility and through the use of advanced X-ray micro-CT, optimised parameters for 3D-printing have been identified. This framework provides a straightforward process enabling researchers to produce robust cells at an extremely low cost, helping to democratise research and widen accessibility to flow electrochemistry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1529-1540
Number of pages12
JournalSustainable Energy & Fuels
Issue number6
Early online date21 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2022


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