## Abstract

This thesis considers the analysis of current and future cellular communication systems. The main focus is on multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) antenna systems. The goal of this work is to characterize the achievable spectral efficiency of MU-MIMO systems, as well as to analyze the performance of practical, linear MU-MIMO transceiver structures in heterogeneous propagation environments. The analytical derivations in this thesis are based on the mathematical theory of finite and large dimensional random matrices. A collection of new general random matrix theory results, which permit efficient numerical evaluation are derived.

With downlink regularized zero-forcing (RZF) processing at a cellular base station (BS), a general framework for the analysis of the expected (average) signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) and ergodic sum spectral efficiency is developed for uncorrelated and semi-correlated Rayleigh fading, as well as uncorrelated Ricean fading propagation channels. In contrast to existing results, the presented analyses are extremely general, applicable to single-cellular, multi-cellular, as well as distributed antenna systems. These systems could consist of arbitrary numbers of transmit and receive antennas, link signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), equal and unequal transmit correlation structures, and line-of-sight (LoS) levels, respectively. Numerical results are presented for single-cellular, as well as for two-tier multi-cellular systems demonstrating the impact of novel BS coordination strategies to suppress dominant inter-cellular interference.

With dominant LoS directions in the propagation channel, the instantaneous downlink zero-forcing (ZF) SNR of a given terminal is analyzed. The ZF SNR is shown to be approximated by a gamma distribution for any number of transmit and receive antennas, link SNRs, and LoS levels. Furthermore, for moderately sized MU-MIMO systems, simplified instantaneous and ergodic sum spectral efficiency analyses are presented with RZF, ZF and matched-filter (MF) transmission on the downlink, and minimum-mean-squared-error, ZF and maximum-ratio combining (MRC) on the uplink, respectively. The simple nature of the derived expressions lead to the discovery of several valuable system level insights as a function of the contributing network parameters. Numerical results are presented for conventional and moderate MU-MIMO systems.

Considering downlink semi-correlated Rayleigh fading channels with spatial correlation at the BS, it is mathematically proven that common correlation patterns for each terminal predicts lower ergodic sum spectral efficiencies in comparison to terminal specific correlation patterns. Closed-form approximations for the expected SINR and ergodic sum spectral efficiency are derived for both MF and ZF precoding, demonstrating the sensitivity of unequal correlation structures on the expected signal, interference and noise powers, respectively. The presented numerical results provide a cautionary tale of the impact of unequal correlation patterns on MU-MIMO performance and the importance of modeling this phenomenon.

Finally, an approximate uplink performance analysis of large MU-MIMO systems with MRC and space-constrained uniform linear antenna arrays (ULA) is presented for semi-correlated Ricean fading channels. A space-constrained channel model is proposed, encapsulating the effects of unequal receive spatial correlation, unequal LoS levels, and unequal link gains for each terminal. The per-terminal and cell-wide ergodic sum spectral efficiencies are characterized and numerous practical special cases are presented. A limiting analysis of the ergodic per-terminal and cell-wide spectral efficiencies is also carried out, as the number of BS antennas grow without bound with a finite number of terminals and fixed physical dimensions of the ULA. Numerical results demonstrate the impact of space-constrained ULAs on the MU-MIMO system performance with variation in the LoS levels, correlation structures, physical array dimensions, and system size, respectively.

With downlink regularized zero-forcing (RZF) processing at a cellular base station (BS), a general framework for the analysis of the expected (average) signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) and ergodic sum spectral efficiency is developed for uncorrelated and semi-correlated Rayleigh fading, as well as uncorrelated Ricean fading propagation channels. In contrast to existing results, the presented analyses are extremely general, applicable to single-cellular, multi-cellular, as well as distributed antenna systems. These systems could consist of arbitrary numbers of transmit and receive antennas, link signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), equal and unequal transmit correlation structures, and line-of-sight (LoS) levels, respectively. Numerical results are presented for single-cellular, as well as for two-tier multi-cellular systems demonstrating the impact of novel BS coordination strategies to suppress dominant inter-cellular interference.

With dominant LoS directions in the propagation channel, the instantaneous downlink zero-forcing (ZF) SNR of a given terminal is analyzed. The ZF SNR is shown to be approximated by a gamma distribution for any number of transmit and receive antennas, link SNRs, and LoS levels. Furthermore, for moderately sized MU-MIMO systems, simplified instantaneous and ergodic sum spectral efficiency analyses are presented with RZF, ZF and matched-filter (MF) transmission on the downlink, and minimum-mean-squared-error, ZF and maximum-ratio combining (MRC) on the uplink, respectively. The simple nature of the derived expressions lead to the discovery of several valuable system level insights as a function of the contributing network parameters. Numerical results are presented for conventional and moderate MU-MIMO systems.

Considering downlink semi-correlated Rayleigh fading channels with spatial correlation at the BS, it is mathematically proven that common correlation patterns for each terminal predicts lower ergodic sum spectral efficiencies in comparison to terminal specific correlation patterns. Closed-form approximations for the expected SINR and ergodic sum spectral efficiency are derived for both MF and ZF precoding, demonstrating the sensitivity of unequal correlation structures on the expected signal, interference and noise powers, respectively. The presented numerical results provide a cautionary tale of the impact of unequal correlation patterns on MU-MIMO performance and the importance of modeling this phenomenon.

Finally, an approximate uplink performance analysis of large MU-MIMO systems with MRC and space-constrained uniform linear antenna arrays (ULA) is presented for semi-correlated Ricean fading channels. A space-constrained channel model is proposed, encapsulating the effects of unequal receive spatial correlation, unequal LoS levels, and unequal link gains for each terminal. The per-terminal and cell-wide ergodic sum spectral efficiencies are characterized and numerous practical special cases are presented. A limiting analysis of the ergodic per-terminal and cell-wide spectral efficiencies is also carried out, as the number of BS antennas grow without bound with a finite number of terminals and fixed physical dimensions of the ULA. Numerical results demonstrate the impact of space-constrained ULAs on the MU-MIMO system performance with variation in the LoS levels, correlation structures, physical array dimensions, and system size, respectively.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | Victoria University of Wellington |

Place of Publication | Wellington, New Zealand |

Pages | 1-285 |

Number of pages | 285 |

Publication status | Published - 01 Jul 2017 |