DC line faults on high-voltage direct current (HVDC) systems utilising voltage source converters (VSCs) are a major issue for multi-terminal HVDC systems in which complete isolation of the faulted system is not a viable option. Of these faults, single line-to-earth faults are the most common fault scenario. To better understand the system under such faults, this study analyses the behaviour of HVDC systems based on both conventional two-level converter and multilevel modular converter technology, experiencing a permanent line-to-earth fault. Operation of the proposed system under two different earthing configurations of converter side AC transformer earthed with converter unearthed, and both converter and AC transformer unearthed, was analysed and simulated, with particular attention paid to the converter operation. It was observed that the development of potential earth loops within the system as a result of DC line-to-earth faults leads to substantial overcurrent and results in oscillations depending on the earthing configuration.
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