Angiogenic potential of vitreous from proliferative diabetic retinopathy and eales' disease patients

Ponnalagu Murugeswari, Dhananjay Shukla, Ramasamy Kim, Perumalsamy Namperumalsamy, Alan W. Stitt, Veerappan Muthukkaruppan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)
289 Downloads (Pure)


Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR) and Eales' Disease (ED) have different aetiologies although they share certain common clinical symptoms including pre-retinal neovascularization. Since there is a need to understand if the shared end-stage angiogenic pathology of PDR and ED is driven by common stimulating factors, we have studied the cytokines contained in vitreous from both patient groups and analyzed the angiogenic potential of these samples in vitro.

Material and Methods

Vitreous samples from patients with PDR (n = 13) and ED (n = 5) were quantified for various cytokines using a cytokine biochip array and sandwich ELISA. An additional group of patients (n = 5) with macular hole (MH) was also studied for comparison. To determine the angiogenic potential of these vitreous samples, they were analyzed for their ability to induce tubulogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells. Further, the effect of anti-VEGF (Ranibizumab) and anti-IL-6 antibodies were studied on vitreous-mediated vascular tube formation.


Elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and VEGF were observed in vitreous of both PDR and ED when compared to MH. PDR and ED vitreous induced greater levels of endothelial cell tube formation compared to controls without vitreous (P<0.05). When VEGF in vitreous was neutralized by clinically-relevant concentrations of Ranibizumab, tube length was reduced significantly in 5 of 6 PDR and 3 of 5 ED samples. Moreover, when treated with IL-6 neutralizing antibody, apparent reduction (71.4%) was observed in PDR vitreous samples.


We have demonstrated that vitreous specimens from PDR and ED patients share common elevations of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokines. This suggests that common cytokine profiles link these two conditions.

Figures 12
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere107551
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalPloS one
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 13 Oct 2014


Dive into the research topics of 'Angiogenic potential of vitreous from proliferative diabetic retinopathy and eales' disease patients'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this