The need for companies to consider the environmental impact of their operations and supply chains has been highlighted in the literature. However, few studies appear to consider the role of integration and learning capabilities developed through internal environmental efforts as key antecedents to more advanced environmental efforts at the supply chain level. This study assesses the implementation of environmental strategies through the lenses of the natural resource-based view and dynamic capabilities. First, the link between the internal strategy ‘pollution prevention’ and the development of internal environmental capabilities (integration and learning) is assessed. Second, the mediating influence of these capabilities on the relationship between pollution prevention and process stewardship is considered. Data collected from 149 UK-based food manufacturing companies is analysed using multiple regression analysis. The findings indicate that internally-based environmental efforts are antecedents to the development of internal environmental capabilities that may be useful in the extension of environmental efforts to the supply chain level. Thus, companies can use the experience developed through implementing internal practices to facilitate the development of more advanced practices at the supply chain level. Theoretically, this supports the arguments of the NRBV and dynamic capabilities perspectives suggesting that integration and learning play an important antecedent role in progressing towards more advanced supply chain level strategies. This also generates managerial insights by shedding further light on important antecedents to environmental supply chain practices.