Antioxidants and periodontitis in 60-70 year- old men

Gerard Linden, K. McClean, Jayne Woodside, Christopher Patterson, Alun Evans, Ian Young, Frank Kee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The aim was to investigate the association between periodontal health and the serum levels of various antioxidants including carotenoids, retinol and vitamin E in a homogenous group of Western European men.
Materials and Methods: A representative sample of 1258 men aged 60-70 years, drawn from the population of Northern Ireland, was examined between 2001 and 2003. Each participant had six or more teeth, completed a questionnaire and underwent a clinical periodontal examination. Serum lipid-soluble antioxidant levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Multivariable analysis was carried out using logistic regression with adjustment for possible confounders. Models were constructed using two measures of periodontal status (low- and high-threshold periodontitis) as dependent variables and the fifths of each antioxidant as a predictor variable.
Results: The levels of a- and ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin were highly significantly lower in the men with low-threshold periodontitis (p<0.001). These carotenoids were also significantly lower in high-threshold periodontitis. There were no significant differences in the levels of lutein, lycopene, a- and ?-tocopherol or retinol in relation to periodontitis. In fully adjusted models, there was an inverse relationship between a number of carotenoids (a- and ß-carotene and ß-cryptoxanthin) and low-threshold periodontitis. ß-Carotene and ß-cryptoxanthin were the only antioxidants that were associated with an increased risk of high-threshold severe periodontitis. The adjusted odds ratio for high-threshold periodontitis in the lowest fifth relative to the highest fifth of ß-cryptoxanthin was 4.02 (p=0.003).
Conclusion: It is concluded that low serum levels of a number of carotenoids, in particular beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene, were associated with an increased prevalence of periodontitis in this homogenous group of 60-70-year-old Western European men.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)843-849
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Periodontology
Issue number10
Early online date23 Aug 2009
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2009


  • antioxidants
  • peridontitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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