Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and Apo J/clusterin are involved in inflammatory resolution and have each been reported to inhibit NF-?B signalling. Using a well-validated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell culture model of Cox-2 over-expression the current study investigated inter-dependence between Cox-2 and clusterin with respect to induction of expression and impact on NF-?B signalling. Both gene expression and immunoblot analysis confirmed that intracellular and secreted levels of clusterin were elevated in Cox-2 over-expressing cells (PCXII). Clusterin expression was increased in control (PCMT) cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner by 15-deoxy-? 12,14-prostaglandin J 2 (15d-PGJ 2), but not PGE 2, and inhibited in PCXII cells by pharmacological Cox inhibition. In PCXII cells, inhibition of two transcription factors known to be activated by 15d-PGJ 2, heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)?, by transcription factor oligonucleotide decoy and antagonist (GW9662) treatment, respectively, reduced clusterin expression. While PCXII cells exhibited reduced TNF-a-induced cell surface ICAM-1 expression, IkB phosphorylation and degradation were similar to control cells. With respect to the impact of Cox-2-dependent clusterin upregulation on NF-?B signalling, basal levels of I?B were similar in control and PCXII cells, and no evidence for a physical association between clusterin and phospho-I?B was obtained. Moreover, while PCXII cells exhibited reduced NF-?B transcriptional activity, this was not restored by clusterin knock-down. These results indicate that Cox-2 induces clusterin in a 15d-PGJ 2-dependent manner, and via activation of HSF-1 and PPAR?. However, the results do not support a model whereby Cox-2/15d-PGJ 2-dependent inhibition of NF-?B signalling involves clusterin.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 2012|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology
- Molecular Biology