Apoptosis, toll-like, RIG-I-like and NOD-like receptors are pathways jointly induced by diverse respiratory bacterial and viral pathogens

Isidoro Martínez*, Juan C. Oliveros, Isabel Cuesta, Jorge de la Barrera, Vicente Ausina, Cristina Casals, Alba de Lorenzo, Ernesto García, Belén García-Fojeda, Junkal Garmendia, Mar González-Nicolau, Alicia Lacoma, Margarita Menéndez, David Moranta, Amelia Nieto, Juan Ortín, Alicia Pérez-González, Cristina Prat, Elisa Ramos-Sevillano, Verónica RegueiroAriel Rodriguez-Frandsen, Dolores Solís, José Yuste, José A. Bengoechea, José A. Melero

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
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Lower respiratory tract infections are among the top five leading causes of human death. Fighting these infections is therefore a world health priority. Searching for induced alterations in host gene expression shared by several relevant respiratory pathogens represents an alternative to identify new targets for wide-range host-oriented therapeutics. With this aim, alveolar macrophages were independently infected with three unrelated bacterial (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus) and two dissimilar viral (respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus) respiratory pathogens, all of them highly relevant for human health. Cells were also activated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a prototypical pathogen-associated molecular pattern. Patterns of differentially expressed cellular genes shared by the indicated pathogens were searched by microarray analysis. Most of the commonly up-regulated host genes were related to the innate immune response and/or apoptosis, with Toll-like, RIG-I-like and NOD-like receptors among the top 10 signaling pathways with over-expressed genes. These results identify new potential broad-spectrum targets to fight the important human infections caused by the bacteria and viruses studied here.

Original languageEnglish
Article number276
JournalFrontiers in Microbiology
Issue numberMAR
Publication statusPublished - 01 Mar 2017


  • Bacterial infections
  • Core of up-regulated genes
  • Host response
  • Respiratory pathogens
  • Viral infections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)


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