Application of GPCR structures for modelling of free fatty acid receptors

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Five G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified to be activated by free fatty acids (FFA). Among them, FFA1 (GPR40) and FFA4 (GPR120) bind long-chain fatty acids, FFA2 (GPR43) and FFA3 (GPR41) bind short-chain fatty acids and GPR84 binds medium-chain fatty acids. Free fatty acid receptors have now emerged as potential targets for the treatment of diabetes, obesity and immune diseases. The recent progress in crystallography of GPCRs has now enabled the elucidation of the structure of FFA1 and provided reliable templates for homology modelling of other FFA receptors. Analysis of the crystal structure and improved homology models, along with mutagenesis data and structure activity, highlighted an unusual arginine charge-pairing interaction in FFA1–3 for receptor modulation, distinct structural features for ligand binding to FFA1 and FFA4 and an arginine of the second extracellular loop as a possible anchoring point for FFA at GPR84. Structural data will be helpful for searching novel small-molecule modulators at the FFA receptors.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFree fatty acid receptors
EditorsGraeme Milligan, Ikuo Kimura
ISBN (Electronic)9783319506937
ISBN (Print)9783319844640, 9783319506920
Publication statusPublished - 08 Feb 2017

Publication series

NameHandbook of Experimental Pharmacology
ISSN (Print)0171-2004
ISSN (Electronic)1865-0325


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