Colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs), first described by Felix Sebba in his book Foams and Biliquid Foams—Aphrons in 1987, consist of a system of spherical microbubbles with diameters mostly above 25 µm and classified as kugelschaums (ball foam). They possess some colloidal properties and can be pumped at uniform rate through pipes and channels, much like liquids. Also, they have high stability due to very small size and thick surfactant shells. Research work published over the past two decades indicate effective applications of CGAs for clarification of particles and microorganisms, protein separation, gas and nutrient transfer and pollutant separation from water and soil matrices. In this review paper, the techniques for generating CGAs and their application to pollution abatement are discussed. Some mineral separation processes by CGA flotation have also been reviewed because of their relevance to contaminant removal processes. The CGAs were found to function on the principles of bubble entrained floc flotation, electrostatic and ionic interaction, diffusion of entrapped gas and hydrophobicity of the pollutant particles. Two tables have also been provided to present a comparative overview of the generation technologies and the effectiveness of pollution remediation techniques.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Organic Chemistry
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Fuel Technology