Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is generally designed with a relatively higher content of finer, which includes cement, and dosage of superplasticizer than the conventional concrete. The design of the current SCC leads to high compressive strength, which is already used in special applications, where the high cost of materials can be tolerated. Using SCC, which eliminates the need for vibration, leads to increased speed of casting and thus reduces labour requirement, energy consumption, construction time, and cost of equipment. In order to obtain and gain maximum benefit from SCC it has to be used for wider applications. The cost of materials will be decreased by reducing the cement content and using a minimum amount of admixtures. This paper reviews statistical models obtained from a factorial design which was carried out to determine the influence of four key parameters on filling ability, passing ability, segregation and compressive strength. These parameters are important for the successful development of medium strength self-compacting concrete (MS-SCC). The parameters considered in the study were the contents of cement and pulverised fuel ash (PFA), water-to-powder ratio (W/P), and dosage of superplasticizer (SP). The responses of the derived statistical models are slump flow, fluidity loss, rheological parameters, Orimet time, V-funnel time, L-box, JRing combined to Orimet, JRing combined to cone, fresh segregation, and compressive strength at 7, 28 and 90 days. The models are valid for mixes made with 0.38 to 0.72 W/P ratio, 60 to 216 kg/m3 of cement content, 183 to 317 kg/m3 of PFA and 0 to 1% of SP, by mass of powder. The utility of such models to optimize concrete mixes to achieve good balance between filling ability, passing ability, segregation, compressive strength, and cost is discussed. Examples highlighting the usefulness of the models are presented using isoresponse surfaces to demonstrate single and coupled effects of mix parameters on slump flow, loss of fluidity, flow resistance, segregation, JRing combined to Orimet, and compressive strength at 7 and 28 days. Cost analysis is carried out to show trade-offs between cost of materials and specified consistency levels and compressive strength at 7 and 28 days that can be used to identify economic mixes. The paper establishes the usefulness of the mathematical models as a tool to facilitate the test protocol required to optimise medium strength SCC.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||ACI Materials Journal|
|Publication status||Published - 2004|