Area deprivation and age related macular degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

Jennifer L Y Yip, Anthony P Khawaja, Michelle P Y Chan, David C Broadway, Tunde Peto, Robert Luben, Shabina Hayat, Amit Bhaniani, Nick Wareham, Paul J Foster, Kay-Tee Khaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
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OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between area deprivation, individual socio-economic status (SES) and age related macular degeneration (AMD).

STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study nested within a longitudinal cohort study.

METHODS: Data were collected in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study by trained nurses, using standardized protocols and lifestyle questionnaires. The English Index of multiple deprivation 2010 (IMD) was derived from participants' postcodes. AMD was identified from standardized grading of fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between IMD, SES and AMD.

RESULTS: 5344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD. Of 5182 participants with complete data, AMD was identified in 653 participants (12.60%, 95%CI = 11.7-13.5%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that people living in the most affluent 5% of areas had nearly half the odds of AMD compared to those living in comparatively more deprived areas (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36-0.89, P = 0.02), after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and smoking.

CONCLUSIONS: The authors found that living in the most affluent areas exerted a protective effect on AMD, independently of education and social class. Further investigation into underlying mechanisms will inform potential interventions to reduce health inequalities relating to AMD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-9
JournalPublic Health
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 14 Feb 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Health Status Disparities
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Logistic Models
  • Macular Degeneration
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Poverty Areas
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking
  • Social Class
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United Kingdom
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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