Assessing the mycotoxicological risk from consumption of complementary foods by infants and young children in Nigeria

Oluwaseun T. Ojuri, Chibundu N. Ezekiel*, Michael Sulyok, Obinna T. Ezeokoli, Oluwawapelumi A. Oyedele, Kolawole I. Ayeni, Mari K. Eskola, Bojan Šarkanj, Jana Hajšlová, Rasheed A. Adeleke, Cyril C. Nwangburuka, Christopher T. Elliott, Rudolf Krska

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

This study assessed, for the first time, the mycotoxicological risks from consumption of complementary foods by infants and young children in Nigeria. Molds belonging to Aspergillus aculeatinus, A. flavus, A. luchuensis, A. tubingensis, A. welwitschiae and Geotrichum candidum were recovered from the complementary foods. Twenty-eight major mycotoxins and derivatives, and another 109 microbial metabolites including chloramphenicol (a bacterial metabolite), were quantified in 137 food samples by LC-MS/MS. Aflatoxins and fumonisins co-contaminated 42% of the cereal- and nut-based food samples, at mean concentrations exceeding the EU limits of 0.1 and 200 μg/kg set for processed baby foods by 300 and six times, respectively. Milk contained mainly beauvericin, chloramphenicol and zearalenone. The trichothecenes, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, were quantified only in infant formula and at levels three times above the EU indicative level of 15 μg/kg for baby food. Chronic exposure estimate to carcinogenic aflatoxin was high causing low margin of exposure (MOE). Exposures to other mycotoxins either exceeded the established reference values by several fold or revealed low MOEs, pointing to important health risks in this highly vulnerable population. The observed mycotoxin mixtures may further increase risks of adverse health outcomes of exposure; this warrants urgent advocacy and regulatory interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-50
Number of pages14
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume121
Early online date16 Aug 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2018

Keywords

  • Child health
  • Complementary foods
  • Exposure and risk assessment
  • Infant nutrition
  • Mycotoxins
  • Public health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology

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  • Cite this

    Ojuri, O. T., Ezekiel, C. N., Sulyok, M., Ezeokoli, O. T., Oyedele, O. A., Ayeni, K. I., Eskola, M. K., Šarkanj, B., Hajšlová, J., Adeleke, R. A., Nwangburuka, C. C., Elliott, C. T., & Krska, R. (2018). Assessing the mycotoxicological risk from consumption of complementary foods by infants and young children in Nigeria. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 121, 37-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.08.025