Assessment of the impedance cardiogram recorded by an automated external defibrillator during clinical cardiac arrest

Nicholas A. Cromie, John Desmond Allen, César Navarro, Colin Turner, J.M. Anderson, A. A. Jennifer Adgey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impedance cardiogram recorded by an automated external defibrillator during cardiac arrest to facilitate emergency care by lay persons. Lay persons are poor at emergency pulse checks (sensitivity 84%, specificity 36%); guidelines recommend they should not be performed. The impedance cardiogram (dZ/dt) is used to indicate stroke volume. Can an impedance cardiogram algorithm in a defibrillator determine rapidly circulatory arrest and facilitate prompt initiation of external cardiac massage?

DESIGN: Clinical study.

SETTING: University hospital.

PATIENTS: Phase 1 patients attended for myocardial perfusion imaging. Phase 2 patients were recruited during cardiac arrest. This group included nonarrest controls.

INTERVENTIONS: The impedance cardiogram was recorded through defibrillator/electrocardiographic pads oriented in the standard cardiac arrest position.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Phase 1: Stroke volumes from gated myocardial perfusion imaging scans were correlated with parameters from the impedance cardiogram system (dZ/dt(max) and the peak amplitude of the Fast Fourier Transform of dZ/dt between 1.5 Hz and 4.5 Hz). Multivariate analysis was performed to fit stroke volumes from gated myocardial perfusion imaging scans with linear and quadratic terms for dZ/dt(max) and the Fast Fourier Transform to identify significant parameters for incorporation into a cardiac arrest diagnostic algorithm. The square of the peak amplitude of the Fast Fourier Transform of dZ/dt was the best predictor of reduction in stroke volumes from gated myocardial perfusion imaging scans (range = 33-85 mL; p = .016). Having established that the two pad impedance cardiogram system could detect differences in stroke volumes from gated myocardial perfusion imaging scans, we assessed its performance in diagnosing cardiac arrest. Phase 2: The impedance cardiogram was recorded in 132 "cardiac arrest" patients (53 training, 79 validation) and 97 controls (47 training, 50 validation): the diagnostic algorithm indicated cardiac arrest with sensitivities and specificities (+/- exact 95% confidence intervals) of 89.1% (85.4-92.1) and 99.6% (99.4-99.7; training) and 81.1% (77.6-84.3) and 97% (96.7-97.4; validation).

CONCLUSIONS: The impedance cardiogram algorithm is a significant marker of circulatory collapse. Automated defibrillators with an integrated impedance cardiogram could improve emergency care by lay persons, enabling rapid and appropriate initiation of external cardiac massage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)510-517
Number of pages8
JournalCritical Care Medicine
Volume38
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Assessment of the impedance cardiogram recorded by an automated external defibrillator during clinical cardiac arrest'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this