Association between overall fruit and vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable sub-types and blood pressure: the PRIME study (Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction)

Nour A Elsahoryi, Charlotte E Neville, Christopher C Patterson, Gerry J Linden, Marie Moitry, Katia Biasch, Frank Kee, Philippe Amouyel, Vanina Bongard, Jean Dallongeville, Jean Ferrières, Jayne V Woodside

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Abstract

Increased fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is associated with reduced blood pressure. However, it is not clear whether the effect of FV on blood pressure depends on the type of FV consumed. Furthermore, there is limited research regarding the comparative effect of juices or whole FV on blood pressure. Baseline data from a prospective cohort study examined the cross-sectional association between total FV intake, but also specific types of FV and blood pressure in France and Northern Ireland. A total of 10660 men aged 50-59 years were recruited from 1991 to 1994. Blood pressure was measured in a clinic setting, and dietary intake was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). After adjusting for potential confounders, both systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly inversely associated with total fruit, vegetable and fruit juice intake however when results were examined according to the sub-type of fruit or vegetable (citrus fruit, other fruit, fruit juices, cooked vegetables and raw vegetables), only the other fruit and raw vegetable categories were consistently associated with reduced SBP and DBP. In relation to the risk of hypertension based on systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg, the odds ratio for total fruit, vegetable and fruit juice intake (per fourth) was 0.95 (95 % CI 0.91, 1.00), with the same estimates being 0.98 (CI % 0.94, 1.02) for citrus fruit intake (per fourth), 1.02 (CI % 0.98, 1.06) for fruit juice intake (per fourth), 0.93 (CI % 0.89, 0.98) for other fruit intake (per fourth), 1.05 (CI % 0.99, 1.10) for cooked vegetable intake (per fourth) and 0.86 (CI % 0.80, 0.91) for raw vegetable intake (per fourth). Similar results were obtained for DBP. In conclusion, a high overall intake of fruit, vegetables and fruit juice was inversely associated with SBP and DBP and risk of hypertension, but that this association differs by FV sub-type, suggesting that the strength of the association between these FV sub-types and blood pressure might be related to the type consumed, or to processing or cooking-related factors.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe British Journal of Nutrition
Early online date04 May 2020
DOIs
Publication statusEarly online date - 04 May 2020

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