Spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) provides high resolution images enabling identification of individual retinal layers. We included 32,923 participants aged 40–69 years old from UK Biobank. Questionnaires, physical examination, and eye examination including SD-OCT imaging were performed. SD OCT measured photoreceptor layer thickness includes photoreceptor layer thickness: inner nuclear layer-retinal pigment epithelium (INL-RPE) and the specific sublayers of the photoreceptor: inner nuclear layer-external limiting membrane (INL-ELM); external limiting membrane-inner segment outer segment (ELM-ISOS); and inner segment outer segment-retinal pigment epithelium (ISOS-RPE). In multivariate regression models, the total average INL-RPE was observed to be thinner in older aged, females, Black ethnicity, smokers, participants with higher systolic blood pressure, more negative refractive error, lower IOPcc and lower corneal hysteresis. The overall INL-ELM, ELM-ISOS and ISOS-RPE thickness was significantly associated with sex and race. Total average of INL-ELM thickness was additionally associated with age and refractive error, while ELM-ISOS was additionally associated with age, smoking status, SBP and refractive error; and ISOS-RPE was additionally associated with smoking status, IOPcc and corneal hysteresis. Hence, we found novel associations of ethnicity, smoking, systolic blood pressure, refraction, IOPcc and corneal hysteresis with photoreceptor thickness.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
S.Y.L.C. and T.A. report no conflict of interest. K.B. reports speaker fees/travel grants/research grants from Novartis, Bayer, Heidelberg, Topcon, Alimera. Q.Y. reports employment by Topcon Medical Systems, Inc. outside the submitted work. P.A.K. reports personal fees from Allergan, personal fees from Topcon, personal fees from Heidelberg Engineering, personal fees from Haag-Streit, personal fees from Novartis, personal fees from Bayer, personal fees from Optos, personal fees from DeepMind, grants from National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), outside the submitted work. C.R. reports employment by Topcon Medical Systems Inc., outside submitted work. P.J.F. reports personal fees from Allergan, Carl Zeiss, Google/DeepMind and Santen, a grant from Alcon, outside the submitted work; P.J.P. reports grants from Topcon Inc, outside the submitted work.
The research supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre based at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. This analysis was supported by the Eranda Foundation via the International Glaucoma Association, UCL ORS & GRS programmes. S.Y.L.C., P.J.F. and P.J.P. received salary support from the NIHR BRC at Moorfields Eye Hospital. P.J.F. received support from the Richard Desmond Charitable Trust, via Fight for Sight, London. P.A.K. is supported by a Clinician Scientist award (CS-2014-14-023) from the National Institute for Health Research. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the National Institute for Health Research or the Department of Health. The UK Biobank Eye and Vision Consortium is supported by grants from Moorfields Eye Charity, The NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology and the Alcon Research Institute. SYLC had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. This research used data from the UK Biobank Resource, under data access request number 2112. This analysis was supported by the Eranda Foundation via the International Glaucoma Association in the design and conduct of the study. S.Y.L.C., P.T.K., P.J.F. and P.J.P. received salary support from the NIHR BRC at Moorfields Eye Hospital. PJF received support from the Richard Desmond Charitable Trust, via Fight for Sight, London. No funders had a direct role in the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; nor in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
© 2019, The Author(s).
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