Atmospheric pressure, nonthermal plasma inactivation of MS2 bacteriophage: effect of oxygen concentration on virucidal activity

N. H. Alshraiedeh, M. Y. Alkawareek, S. P. Gorman, W. G. Graham, B. F. Gilmore*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)



The main aim of this study was to determine the virucidal inactivation efficacy of an in-house-designed atmospheric pressure, nonthermal plasma jet operated at varying helium/oxygen feed gas concentrations against MS2 bacteriophage, widely employed as a convenient surrogate for human norovirus.

Methods and Results

The effect of variation of percentage oxygen concentration in the helium (He) carrier gas was studied and found to positively correlate with MS2 inactivation rate, indicating a role for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in viral inactivation. The inactivation rate constant increased with increasing oxygen concentrations up to 075% O-2. 3 log(10) (999%) reductions in MS2 viability were achieved after 3min of exposure to the plasma source operated in a helium/oxygen (9925%:075%) gas mixture, with >7 log(10) reduction after 9min exposure.


Atmospheric pressure, nonthermal plasmas may have utility in the rapid disinfection of virally contaminated surfaces for infection control applications.

Significance and Impact of StudyThe atmospheric pressure, nonthermal plasma jet employed in this study exhibits rapid virucidal activity against a norovirus surrogate virus, the MS2 bacteriophage, which is superior to previously published inactivation rates for chemical disinfectants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1420-1426
JournalJournal of Applied Microbiology
Issue number6
Early online date12 Sept 2013
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013

Bibliographical note

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


  • atmospheric pressure plasma
  • disinfection
  • MS2 bacteriophage
  • nonthermal plasma
  • norovirus
  • plasma sterilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Biotechnology


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