The microbiological safety of spontaneously fermented foods is not always guaranteed due to the undefined fermenting microbial consortium and processing materials. In this study, two commonly consumed traditional condiments (iru and ogiri) and their respective raw seeds (locust bean and melon) purchased from markets in south-western Nigeria were assessed for bacterial diversity and mycotoxin contamination using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. Two hundred isolates obtained from the raw seeds and condiments clustered into 10 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and spanned 3 phyla, 10 genera, 14 species and 2 sub-species. Bacillus (25%) and Staphylococcus (23.5%) dominated other genera. Potentially pathogenic species such as Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus anthracis, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus sciuri subsp. sciuri occurred in the samples, suggesting poor hygienic practice during production and/or handling of the condiments. A total of 48 microbial metabolites including 7 mycotoxins [3-nitropropionic acid, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), AFB2, beauvericin, citrinin, ochratoxin A and sterigmatocystin] were quantified in the food samples. Melon and ogiri had detectable aflatoxin levels whereas locust bean and iru did not; the overall mycotoxin levels in the food samples were low. There is a need to educate processors/vendors of these condiments on good hygienic and processing practices.