OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) in the attenuation of the sepsis syndrome and acute lung injury associated with lower limb ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Gut-derived endotoxin has been implicated in the conversion of the sterile inflammatory response to a lethal sepsis syndrome after lower torso I/R injury. rBPI21 is a novel antiendotoxin therapy with proven benefit in sepsis. METHODS: Anesthetized ventilated swine underwent midline laparotomy and bilateral external iliac artery occlusion for 2 hours followed by 2.5 hours of reperfusion. Two groups (n = 6 per group) were randomized to receive, by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes, at the start of reperfusion, either thaumatin, a control-protein preparation, at 2 mg/kg body weight, or rBPI21 at 2 mg/kg body weight. A control group (n = 6) underwent laparotomy without further treatment and was administered thaumatin at 2 mg/kg body weight after 2 hours of anesthesia. Blood from a carotid artery cannula was taken every half-hour for arterial blood gas analysis. Plasma was separated and stored at -70 degrees C for later determination of plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6 by bioassay, and IL-8 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as a markers of systemic inflammation. Plasma endotoxin concentration was measured using ELISA. Lung tissue wet-to-dry weight ratio and myeloperoxidase concentration were used as markers of edema and neutrophil sequestration, respectively. Bronchoalveolar lavage protein concentration was measured by the bicinclinoic acid method as a measure of capillary-alveolar protein leak. The alveolar-arterial gradient was measured; a large gradient indicated impaired oxygen transport and hence lung injury. RESULTS: Bilateral hind limb I/R injury increased significantly intestinal mucosal acidosis, intestinal permeability, portal endotoxemia, plasma IL-6 concentrations, circulating phagocytic cell priming and pulmonary leukosequestration, edema, capillary-alveolar protein leak, and impaired gas exchange. Conversely, pigs treated with rBPI21 2 mg/kg at the onset of reperfusion had significantly reduced intestinal mucosal acidosis, portal endotoxin concentrations, and circulating phagocytic cell priming and had significantly less pulmonary edema, leukosequestration, and respiratory failure. CONCLUSIONS: Endotoxin transmigration across a hyperpermeable gut barrier, phagocytic cell priming, and cytokinemia are key events of I/R injury, sepsis, and pulmonary dysfunction. This study shows that rBPI21 ameliorates these adverse effects and may provide a novel therapeutic approach for prevention of I/R-associated sepsis syndrome.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Annals of Surgery|
|Publication status||Published - 2001|
ASJC Scopus subject areas