The skin secretions of Neotropical phyllomedusine leaf frogs have proven to be a rich source of biologically-active peptides, including antimicrobials. The major families of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) reported are the dermaseptins and phylloseptins and the minor families, the dermatoxins, phylloxins, plasticins, distinctins and the medusins. Here, we report a novel AMP of 10 amino acid residues (LRPAILVRIKamide), named balteatide, from the skin secretion of wild Peruvian purple-sided leaf frogs, Phyllomedusa baltea. Balteatide was found to exhibit a 90% sequence identity with sauvatide, a potent myotropic peptide from the skin secretion of Phyllomedusa sauvagei. However, despite both peptides exhibiting only a single amino acid difference (I/T at position 9), sauvatide is devoid of antimicrobial activity and balteatide is devoid of myotropic activity. Balteatide was found to have differential activity against the Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli and the yeast, Candida albicans, and unusually for phyllomedusine frog skin AMPs, was most potent (MIC 32 mg/L) against the yeast. Balteatide was also devoid of haemolytic activity up to concentrations of 512 mg/L. Phyllomedusine frog skin secretions thus continue to provide novel AMPs, some of which may provide templates for the rational design of new classes of anti-infective therapeutics.