Biotransformation of Substituted Pyridines with Dioxygenase-containing Microorganisms.

Gary Sheldrake, M.D. Garrett, R. Scott, H. Dalton, P. Goode

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


A series of 2-, 3- and 4-substituted pyridines was metabolised using the mutant soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida UV4 which contains a toluene dioxygenase (TDO) enzyme. The regioselectivity of the biotransformation in each case was determined by the position of the substituent. 4-Alkylpyridines were hydroxylated exclusively on the ring to give the corresponding 4-substituted 3-hydroxypyridines, while 3-alkylpyridines were hydroxylated stereoselectively on C-1 of the alkyl group with no evidence of ring hydroxylation. 2-Alkylpyridines gave both ring and side-chain hydroxylation products. Choro- and bromo-substituted pyridines, and pyridine itself, while being poor substrates for P. putida UV4, were converted to some extent to the corresponding 3-hydroxypyridines. These unoptimised biotransformations are rare examples of the direct enzyme-catalysed oxidation of pyridine rings and provide a novel synthetic method for the preparation of substituted pyridinols. Evidence for the involvement of the same TDO enzyme in both ring and side-chain hydroxylation pathways was obtained using a recombinant strain of Escherichia coli (pKST11) containing a cloned gene for TDO. The observed stereoselectivity of the side-chain hydroxylation process in P. putida UV4 was complicated by the action of an alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme in the organism which slowly leads to epimerisation of the initial (R)-alcohol bioproducts by dehydrogenation to the corresponding ketones followed by stereoselective reduction to the (S)-alcohols.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2710-2715
Number of pages6
JournalOrganic and Biomolecular Chemistry
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Biotransformation of Substituted Pyridines with Dioxygenase-containing Microorganisms.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this