Born, not Made. Designing the Productive City

Greg Keeffe*, Rob Roggema

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


In this chapter new ways are explored how ecological drivers, laws and principles can be used to design and create new parts of cities. Using key evolutionary principles, the city is seen as an organism, and evolving towards a more resilient future. A range of examples designed for different locations in the United Kingdom exemplify this conceptual line of thought.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDesigning Sustainable Cities
EditorsRob Roggema
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
Number of pages24
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-54686-1
Publication statusPublished - 20 Dec 2020

Publication series

NameContemporary Urban Design Thinking
ISSN (Print)2522-8404


  • evolutionary principles
  • ecological footprint
  • sustainable city
  • city as organism


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