While bradykinin has been identified in the skin secretions from several species of amphibian, bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs) are more common constituents. These peptides display a plethora of primary structural variations from the type peptide which include single or multiple amino acid substitutions, N- and/or C-terminal extensions and post-translational modifications such as proline hydroxylation and tyrosine sulfation. Such modified peptides have been reported in species from many families, including Bombinatoridae, Hylidae and Ranidae. The spectrum of these peptides in a given species is thought to be reflective of its predator profile from different vertebrate taxa. Here we report the isolation of BRPs and parallel molecular cloning of their respective biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs from the skin secretions of the Mexican leaf frog (Pachymedusa dacnicolor), the Central American red-eyed leaf frog (Agalychnis callidryas) and the South American orange-legged leaf frog (Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis). Additionally, the eight different BRPs identified were chemically synthesized and screened for bioactivity using four different mammalian smooth muscle preparations and their effects and rank potencies were found to be radically different in these with some acting preferentially through bradykinin B1-type receptors and others through B2-type receptors.
- Amphibian; Skin; Peptides; Moleculae Cloning; Bradykinin; Smooth muscle