Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Occupations with Exposure to Carcinogens and Endocrine Disruptors: a Canadian Case-Control Study

James T. Brophy, Margaret M. Keith, Andrew E. Watterson, Robert Park, Michael Gilbertson, Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale, Matthias Beck, Hakam Abu-Zhara, Kenneth Schneider, Abraham Reinhartz, Robert DeMatteo, Isaac Luginaah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

73 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background

Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours.

Methods

1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1147 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case?control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression.

Results

Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration). Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82); bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53); automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88), food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53), and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92). Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4) and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5).

Conclusions

These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and demonstrate the value of detailed work histories in environmental and occupational epidemiology.
LanguageEnglish
Number of pages17
JournalEnvironmental Health
Volume11
Issue number87
Early online date19 Nov 2012
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Fingerprint

Endocrine Disruptors
Occupations
Carcinogens
Case-Control Studies
Breast Neoplasms
Agriculture
Plastics
Food
Neoplasms
Reproductive History
Gambling
Estrogen Receptors
Industry
Epidemiology
Logistic Models
Research

Keywords

  • Agriculture
  • Breast cancer
  • Canning
  • Casion
  • Carcinogen
  • Endocrine Disruptor
  • Metal
  • Occupational
  • Plastics

Cite this

Brophy, J. T., Keith, M. M., Watterson, A. E., Park, R., Gilbertson, M., Maticka-Tyndale, E., ... Luginaah, I. (2012). Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Occupations with Exposure to Carcinogens and Endocrine Disruptors: a Canadian Case-Control Study. Environmental Health, 11(87). https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-11-87
Brophy, James T. ; Keith, Margaret M. ; Watterson, Andrew E. ; Park, Robert ; Gilbertson, Michael ; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor ; Beck, Matthias ; Abu-Zhara, Hakam ; Schneider, Kenneth ; Reinhartz, Abraham ; DeMatteo, Robert ; Luginaah, Isaac. / Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Occupations with Exposure to Carcinogens and Endocrine Disruptors : a Canadian Case-Control Study. In: Environmental Health. 2012 ; Vol. 11, No. 87.
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abstract = "Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1147 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case?control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95{\%} CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration). Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95{\%} CI, 1.01-1.82); bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95{\%} CI, 0.94-5.53); automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95{\%} CI, 1.47-4.88), food canning (OR = 2.35; 95{\%} CI, 1.00-5.53), and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95{\%} CI, 1.02-2.92). Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95{\%} CI, 1.58-14.4) and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95{\%} CI, 1.03-31.5). Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and demonstrate the value of detailed work histories in environmental and occupational epidemiology.",
keywords = "Agriculture, Breast cancer, Canning, Casion, Carcinogen, Endocrine Disruptor, Metal, Occupational, Plastics",
author = "Brophy, {James T.} and Keith, {Margaret M.} and Watterson, {Andrew E.} and Robert Park and Michael Gilbertson and Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale and Matthias Beck and Hakam Abu-Zhara and Kenneth Schneider and Abraham Reinhartz and Robert DeMatteo and Isaac Luginaah",
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Brophy, JT, Keith, MM, Watterson, AE, Park, R, Gilbertson, M, Maticka-Tyndale, E, Beck, M, Abu-Zhara, H, Schneider, K, Reinhartz, A, DeMatteo, R & Luginaah, I 2012, 'Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Occupations with Exposure to Carcinogens and Endocrine Disruptors: a Canadian Case-Control Study', Environmental Health, vol. 11, no. 87. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-11-87

Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Occupations with Exposure to Carcinogens and Endocrine Disruptors : a Canadian Case-Control Study. / Brophy, James T.; Keith, Margaret M.; Watterson, Andrew E.; Park, Robert; Gilbertson, Michael; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Beck, Matthias; Abu-Zhara, Hakam; Schneider, Kenneth; Reinhartz, Abraham; DeMatteo, Robert; Luginaah, Isaac.

In: Environmental Health, Vol. 11, No. 87, 2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Occupations with Exposure to Carcinogens and Endocrine Disruptors

T2 - Environmental Health

AU - Brophy, James T.

AU - Keith, Margaret M.

AU - Watterson, Andrew E.

AU - Park, Robert

AU - Gilbertson, Michael

AU - Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

AU - Beck, Matthias

AU - Abu-Zhara, Hakam

AU - Schneider, Kenneth

AU - Reinhartz, Abraham

AU - DeMatteo, Robert

AU - Luginaah, Isaac

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1147 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case?control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration). Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82); bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53); automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88), food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53), and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92). Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4) and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5). Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and demonstrate the value of detailed work histories in environmental and occupational epidemiology.

AB - Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1147 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case?control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration). Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82); bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53); automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88), food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53), and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92). Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4) and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5). Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and demonstrate the value of detailed work histories in environmental and occupational epidemiology.

KW - Agriculture

KW - Breast cancer

KW - Canning

KW - Casion

KW - Carcinogen

KW - Endocrine Disruptor

KW - Metal

KW - Occupational

KW - Plastics

U2 - 10.1186/1476-069X-11-87

DO - 10.1186/1476-069X-11-87

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - Environmental Health

JF - Environmental Health

SN - 1476-069X

IS - 87

ER -