Brexit and the Implementation of the Withdrawal Agreement

Dagmar Schiek*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Citations (Scopus)


This chapter analyses the implementation of the Agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU) of January 2020 (Withdrawal Agreement-WA) during the transition period in 2020 up to the first quarter of 2021. While formally transitory, the WA governs continuing bonds which will endure for decades. The chapter focuses on two fields in which this particularly prevalent, Part Two of the WA and the Protocol on Ireland/Northern Ireland. Both manage permanent situations, the need to protect the reliance of EU citizens on the durability of their rights after moving to the UK or from the UK into the EU, and the need to manage the hybridity of Northern Ireland between Ireland and the UK. Implementing those remnants of EU membership constitutes a permanent struggle. This chapter elaborates the ensuing difficulties and concludes with practical proposals for how to alleviate negative repercussion.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Law & Politics of Brexit: Volume III: The Framework of New EU-UK Relations
EditorsFederico Fabbrini
Place of PublicationOxford
PublisherOxford University Press/Hurst
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9780191943782
ISBN (Print)9780192848475
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sept 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements. We thank Dr. Tom Hei and Dr. Roland Kanaar for providing the cell lines, support team at Brookhaven National Laboratory for helping with particle radiation, members of the Wang laboratory for helpful discussion and Doreen Theune for editing the manuscript. This work was mainly supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (GM080771), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NNX11AC30G, NNJ05HD36G, NNX09AU95G, NNX11AC15G and NNJ12ZSA001N) and Department of Energy (DE-AI02-10ER64969).

Publisher Copyright:
© The Several Contributors 2021.


  • EU Citizenship Rights
  • EU-UK relationship
  • implementation by disagreement
  • Northern Ireland
  • Protocol Ireland/Northern Ireland
  • TCA
  • Withdrawal Agreement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences


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