Carboxyl functionalised MWCNT/Polymethyl methacrylate bone cement for orthopaedic applications

Ross W Ormsby, Mirceau Modreau, Christina Mitchell, Nicholas J Dunne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The incorporation of carboxyl functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-COOH) into a leading proprietary grade orthopaedic bone cement (Simplex PTM) at 0.1 wt% has been investigated. Resultant static and fatigue mechanical properties, in addition to thermal and polymerisation properties, have been determined. Significant improvements (p 0.001) in bending strength (42%), bending modulus (55%) and fracture toughness (22%) were demonstrated. Fatigue properties were improved (p 0.001), with mean number of cycles to failure and fatigue performance index being increased by 64% and 52%, respectively. Thermal necrosis index values at 44C and 55C were significantly reduced (p 0.001) (28% and 27%) versus the control. Furthermore, the onset of polymerisation increased by 58% (p < 0.001), as did the duration of the polymerisation reaction (52%). Peak energy during polymerisation increased by 672% (p < 0.001). Peak area of polymerisation increased by 116% (p < 0.001) indicating that the incorporation of MWCNT-COOH reduced the rate of polymerisation significantly. A non-significant reduction (8%) in percentage monomer conversion was also recorded. Raman spectroscopy clearly showed that the addition of MWCNT-COOH increased the ratio between normalised intensities of the G-Band and D-Band (IG/ID), and also increased the theoretical compressive strain (1.72%) exerted on the MWCNT-COOH by the Simplex PTM cement matrix. Therefore, demonstrating a level of chemical interactivity between the MWCNT-COOH and the Simplex PTM bone cement exists and consequently a more effective mechanism for successful transfer of mechanical load. The extent of homogenous dispersion of the MWCNT-COOH throughout the bone cement was determined using Raman mapping. Ke
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)209-221
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Biomaterials Applications
Issue number2
Early online date30 Jan 2014
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2014


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