Cardiac Depression Scale: Mokken scaling in heart failure patients

Chantal F. Ski, David R. Thompson*, David L. Hare, Andrew G. Stewart, Roger Watson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Background: There is a high prevalence of depression in patients with heart failure (HF) that is associated with worsening prognosis. The value of using a reliable and valid instrument to measure depression in this population is therefore essential. We validated the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS) in heart failure patients using a model of ordinal unidimensional measurement known as Mokken scaling.Findings: We administered in face-to-face interviews the CDS to 603 patients with HF. Data were analysed using Mokken scale analysis. Items of the CDS formed a statistically significant unidimensional Mokken scale of low strength (H<0.40) and high reliability (Rho>0.8).Conclusions: The CDS has a hierarchy of items which can be interpreted in terms of the increasingly serious effects of depression occurring as a result of HF. Identifying an appropriate instrument to measure depression in patients with HF allows for early identification and better medical management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number141
JournalHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Publication statusPublished - 23 Nov 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiac Depression Scale
  • Depression
  • Heart failure
  • Mokken scaling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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